tar - 1 파일묶기, 압축


명령어: tar
키워드: 파일묶기, 압축
사용처: 리눅스 파일들을 하나로 묶거나 압축할 때 사용

TAR 명령어는 리눅스에서 파일을 다룰 때 많이 사용하는 명령어 입니다.
파일을 묶거나 압축할 때 자주 사용하며, 로그파일의 압축 보관 할 때 많이 사용하는데요.
대개 cron탭에 등록하여 사용하기도 합니다. 자주 사용하는 TAR의 기능과 옵션을 정리해 보려합니다.


Linux tar –help 옵션

Usage: tar [OPTION...] [FILE]...
GNU 'tar' saves many files together into a single tape or disk archive, and can
restore individual files from the archive.

  tar -cf archive.tar foo bar  # Create archive.tar from files foo and bar.
  tar -tvf archive.tar         # List all files in archive.tar verbosely.
  tar -xf archive.tar          # Extract all files from archive.tar.

 Main operation mode:
  -A, --catenate, --concatenate   append tar files to an archive
  -c, --create               create a new archive
      --delete               delete from the archive (not on mag tapes!)
  -d, --diff, --compare      find differences between archive and file system
  -r, --append               append files to the end of an archive
      --test-label           test the archive volume label and exit
  -t, --list                 list the contents of an archive
  -u, --update               only append files newer than copy in archive
  -x, --extract, --get       extract files from an archive

 Operation modifiers:

      --check-device         check device numbers when creating incremental
                             archives (default)
  -g, --listed-incremental=FILE   handle new GNU-format incremental backup
  -G, --incremental          handle old GNU-format incremental backup
      --hole-detection=TYPE  technique to detect holes
      --ignore-failed-read   do not exit with nonzero on unreadable files
      --level=NUMBER         dump level for created listed-incremental archive
      --no-check-device      do not check device numbers when creating
                             incremental archives
      --no-seek              archive is not seekable
  -n, --seek                 archive is seekable
      --occurrence[=NUMBER]  process only the NUMBERth occurrence of each file
                             in the archive; this option is valid only in
                             conjunction with one of the subcommands --delete,
                             --diff, --extract or --list and when a list of
                             files is given either on the command line or via
                             the -T option; NUMBER defaults to 1
                             set version of the sparse format to use (implies
  -S, --sparse               handle sparse files efficiently

 Local file name selection:
      --add-file=FILE        add given FILE to the archive (useful if its name
                             starts with a dash)
  -C, --directory=DIR        change to directory DIR
      --exclude=PATTERN      exclude files, given as a PATTERN
      --exclude-backups      exclude backup and lock files
      --exclude-caches       exclude contents of directories containing
                             CACHEDIR.TAG, except for the tag file itself
      --exclude-caches-all   exclude directories containing CACHEDIR.TAG
      --exclude-caches-under exclude everything under directories containing
      --exclude-ignore=FILE  read exclude patterns for each directory from
                             FILE, if it exists
                             read exclude patterns for each directory and its
                             subdirectories from FILE, if it exists
      --exclude-tag=FILE     exclude contents of directories containing FILE,
                             except for FILE itself
      --exclude-tag-all=FILE exclude directories containing FILE
      --exclude-tag-under=FILE   exclude everything under directories
                             containing FILE
      --exclude-vcs          exclude version control system directories
      --exclude-vcs-ignores  read exclude patterns from the VCS ignore files
      --no-null              disable the effect of the previous --null option
      --no-recursion         avoid descending automatically in directories
      --no-unquote           do not unquote input file or member names
      --no-verbatim-files-from   -T treats file names starting with dash as
                             options (default)
      --null                 -T reads null-terminated names; implies
      --recursion            recurse into directories (default)
  -T, --files-from=FILE      get names to extract or create from FILE
      --unquote              unquote input file or member names (default)
      --verbatim-files-from  -T reads file names verbatim (no escape or option
  -X, --exclude-from=FILE    exclude patterns listed in FILE

 File name matching options (affect both exclude and include patterns):

      --anchored             patterns match file name start
      --ignore-case          ignore case
      --no-anchored          patterns match after any '/' (default for
      --no-ignore-case       case sensitive matching (default)
      --no-wildcards         verbatim string matching
      --no-wildcards-match-slash   wildcards do not match '/'
      --wildcards            use wildcards (default for exclusion)
      --wildcards-match-slash   wildcards match '/' (default)

 Overwrite control:

      --keep-directory-symlink   preserve existing symlinks to directories when
      --keep-newer-files     don't replace existing files that are newer than
                             their archive copies
  -k, --keep-old-files       don't replace existing files when extracting,
                             treat them as errors
      --no-overwrite-dir     preserve metadata of existing directories
      --one-top-level[=DIR]  create a subdirectory to avoid having loose files
      --overwrite            overwrite existing files when extracting
      --overwrite-dir        overwrite metadata of existing directories when
                             extracting (default)
      --recursive-unlink     empty hierarchies prior to extracting directory
      --remove-files         remove files after adding them to the archive
      --skip-old-files       don't replace existing files when extracting,
                             silently skip over them
  -U, --unlink-first         remove each file prior to extracting over it
  -W, --verify               attempt to verify the archive after writing it

 Select output stream:

      --ignore-command-error ignore exit codes of children
      --no-ignore-command-error   treat non-zero exit codes of children as
  -O, --to-stdout            extract files to standard output
      --to-command=COMMAND   pipe extracted files to another program

 Handling of file attributes:

      --atime-preserve[=METHOD]   preserve access times on dumped files, either
                             by restoring the times after reading
                             (METHOD='replace'; default) or by not setting the
                             times in the first place (METHOD='system')
      --clamp-mtime          only set time when the file is more recent than
                             what was given with --mtime
      --delay-directory-restore   delay setting modification times and
                             permissions of extracted directories until the end
                             of extraction
      --group=NAME           force NAME as group for added files
      --group-map=FILE       use FILE to map file owner GIDs and names
      --mode=CHANGES         force (symbolic) mode CHANGES for added files
      --mtime=DATE-OR-FILE   set mtime for added files from DATE-OR-FILE
  -m, --touch                don't extract file modified time
                             cancel the effect of --delay-directory-restore
      --no-same-owner        extract files as yourself (default for ordinary
      --no-same-permissions  apply the user's umask when extracting permissions
                             from the archive (default for ordinary users)
      --numeric-owner        always use numbers for user/group names
      --owner=NAME           force NAME as owner for added files
      --owner-map=FILE       use FILE to map file owner UIDs and names
  -p, --preserve-permissions, --same-permissions
                             extract information about file permissions
                             (default for superuser)
      --same-owner           try extracting files with the same ownership as
                             exists in the archive (default for superuser)
      --sort=ORDER           directory sorting order: none (default), name or
  -s, --preserve-order, --same-order
                             member arguments are listed in the same order as
                             the files in the archive

 Handling of extended file attributes:

      --acls                 Enable the POSIX ACLs support
      --no-acls              Disable the POSIX ACLs support
      --no-selinux           Disable the SELinux context support
      --no-xattrs            Disable extended attributes support
      --selinux              Enable the SELinux context support
      --xattrs               Enable extended attributes support
      --xattrs-exclude=MASK  specify the exclude pattern for xattr keys
      --xattrs-include=MASK  specify the include pattern for xattr keys

 Device selection and switching:

      --force-local          archive file is local even if it has a colon
  -f, --file=ARCHIVE         use archive file or device ARCHIVE
  -F, --info-script=NAME, --new-volume-script=NAME
                             run script at end of each tape (implies -M)
  -L, --tape-length=NUMBER   change tape after writing NUMBER x 1024 bytes
  -M, --multi-volume         create/list/extract multi-volume archive
      --rmt-command=COMMAND  use given rmt COMMAND instead of rmt
      --rsh-command=COMMAND  use remote COMMAND instead of rsh
      --volno-file=FILE      use/update the volume number in FILE

 Device blocking:

  -b, --blocking-factor=BLOCKS   BLOCKS x 512 bytes per record
  -B, --read-full-records    reblock as we read (for 4.2BSD pipes)
  -i, --ignore-zeros         ignore zeroed blocks in archive (means EOF)
      --record-size=NUMBER   NUMBER of bytes per record, multiple of 512

 Archive format selection:

  -H, --format=FORMAT        create archive of the given format

 FORMAT is one of the following:
    gnu                      GNU tar 1.13.x format
    oldgnu                   GNU format as per tar <= 1.12
    pax                      POSIX 1003.1-2001 (pax) format
    posix                    same as pax
    ustar                    POSIX 1003.1-1988 (ustar) format
    v7                       old V7 tar format

      --old-archive, --portability
                             same as --format=v7
                             control pax keywords
      --posix                same as --format=posix
  -V, --label=TEXT           create archive with volume name TEXT; at
                             list/extract time, use TEXT as a globbing pattern
                             for volume name   

 Compression options:

  -a, --auto-compress        use archive suffix to determine the compression
  -I, --use-compress-program=PROG
                             filter through PROG (must accept -d)
  -j, --bzip2                filter the archive through bzip2
  -J, --xz                   filter the archive through xz
      --lzip                 filter the archive through lzip
      --lzma                 filter the archive through xz --format=lzma
      --lzop                 filter the archive through lzop
      --no-auto-compress     do not use archive suffix to determine the
                             compression program
      --zstd                 filter the archive through zstd
  -z, --gzip, --gunzip, --ungzip   filter the archive through gzip
  -Z, --compress, --uncompress   filter the archive through compress

 Local file selection:

      --backup[=CONTROL]     backup before removal, choose version CONTROL
      --hard-dereference     follow hard links; archive and dump the files they
                             refer to
  -h, --dereference          follow symlinks; archive and dump the files they
                             point to
  -K, --starting-file=MEMBER-NAME
                             begin at member MEMBER-NAME when reading the
      --newer-mtime=DATE     compare date and time when data changed only
  -N, --newer=DATE-OR-FILE, --after-date=DATE-OR-FILE
                             only store files newer than DATE-OR-FILE
      --one-file-system      stay in local file system when creating archive
  -P, --absolute-names       don't strip leading '/'s from file names
      --suffix=STRING        backup before removal, override usual suffix ('~'
                             unless overridden by environment variable

 File name transformations:

      --strip-components=NUMBER   strip NUMBER leading components from file
                             names on extraction
      --transform=EXPRESSION, --xform=EXPRESSION
                             use sed replace EXPRESSION to transform file

 Informative output:

      --checkpoint[=NUMBER]  display progress messages every NUMBERth record
                             (default 10)
      --checkpoint-action=ACTION   execute ACTION on each checkpoint
      --full-time            print file time to its full resolution
      --index-file=FILE      send verbose output to FILE
  -l, --check-links          print a message if not all links are dumped
      --no-quote-chars=STRING   disable quoting for characters from STRING
      --quote-chars=STRING   additionally quote characters from STRING
      --quoting-style=STYLE  set name quoting style; see below for valid STYLE
  -R, --block-number         show block number within archive with each message
      --show-defaults        show tar defaults
      --show-omitted-dirs    when listing or extracting, list each directory
                             that does not match search criteria
                             show valid ranges for snapshot-file fields
      --show-transformed-names, --show-stored-names
                             show file or archive names after transformation
      --totals[=SIGNAL]      print total bytes after processing the archive;
                             with an argument - print total bytes when this
                             SIGNAL is delivered; Allowed signals are: SIGHUP,
                             SIGQUIT, SIGINT, SIGUSR1 and SIGUSR2; the names
                             without SIG prefix are also accepted
      --utc                  print file modification times in UTC
  -v, --verbose              verbosely list files processed
      --warning=KEYWORD      warning control
  -w, --interactive, --confirmation
                             ask for confirmation for every action

 Compatibility options:

  -o                         when creating, same as --old-archive; when
                             extracting, same as --no-same-owner

 Other options:

  -?, --help                 give this help list
      --restrict             disable use of some potentially harmful options
      --usage                give a short usage message
      --version              print program version

Mandatory or optional arguments to long options are also mandatory or optional
for any corresponding short options.

The backup suffix is '~', unless set with --suffix or SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX.
The version control may be set with --backup or VERSION_CONTROL, values are:

  none, off       never make backups
  t, numbered     make numbered backups
  nil, existing   numbered if numbered backups exist, simple otherwise
  never, simple   always make simple backups

Valid arguments for the --quoting-style option are:


*This* tar defaults to:
--format=gnu -f- -b20 --quoting-style=escape --rmt-command=/etc/rmt


TAR 란?

출처 : https://recipes4dev.tistory.com/146

TAR는 (Tape ARchiver)의 단어들을 조합하여 약어로 명명되었습니다.
과거에 Tape를 이용하여 데이터를 저장하던시기에 명명된 것으로 생각되는데요.
AR(Archiver)은 통상적으로 여러파일을 하나의 파일로 합치는 것을 의미합니다. 과거 테이프에 담겨진 파일을 백업하기 위해 만들어진 프로그램이라는 것을 유추할 수 있습니다.

TAR는 여러 파일을 묶는데 사용되지만 명령어 옵션으로 압축하여 묶을 수도 있습니다. 가장 많이 사용하는 명령어 옵션을 통해 파일들을 묶고, 압축하는 방법을 살펴보겠습니다.

  • 자주 사용하는 명령어 옵션

    옵션 설명
    -f 대상파일을 tar 아카이브 지정 (기본 옵션)
    -c tar 아카이브 생성. 기존 아카이브 덮어 쓰기 (파일 묶을 때 사용)
    -x tar 아카이브에서 파일 추출(파일 풀 때 사용)
    -v 처리되는 과정(파일 정보)을 자세하게 나열
    -z gzip 압축 적용 옵션
    -j bzip2 압축 적용 옵션
    -t tar 아카이브에 포함된 내용 확인
    -C 대상 디렉토리 경로 지정
    -A 아카이브 파일을 tar 아카이브에 추가
    -d tar 아카이브와 파일 시스템 간 차이점 검색
    -r tar 아카이브 마지막에 파일들 추가
    -u tar 아카이브에 새롭게 추가된 파일만 추가
    -k tar 아카이브 추출 시, 기존 파일 유지
    -U tar 아카이브 추출 전, 기존 파일 삭제
    -w 모든 진행 과정에 대해 확인 요청. (interactive)
    -e 첫 번째 에러 발생 시 중지


1. TAR로 파일묶기 및 해제

  • files 디렉토리를 files.tar로 묶기

      $ tar cvf files.tar files/
  • files.tar 의 아카이브를 해제

      $ tar xvf files.tar


2. TAR 압축 및 해제

  • files 디렉토리를 files.tar.gz 로 압축하기(gzip : z옵션)

  • 예제에서는 많이 사용하는 gzip 옵션(z)을 사용하였습니다.

      $ tar zcvf files.tar.gz files/ 
      $ tar zxvf files.tar.gz

    압축률이 높은 xz의 경우 시간이 다소 오래걸린다는 단점이 있습니다. 파일의 갯수와 용량을 확인해서 적정 옵션을 사용하면 좀 더 효율적으로 사용할 수 있습니다.

    참고사이트: https://kurukurucoding.tistory.com/26